Legal aspects of Healthcare Information

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Develop a 7–9-page strategic planning resource packet on the legal aspects of information management and patient records. This assessment focuses on the importance of maintaining complete and accurate records within health care, the ownership of and who can access a patient’s medical records, the advantages and disadvantages of electronic medical records, and why the medical record is an important part of a legal proceeding. Emphasis is also placed on the purpose of the Privacy Act of 1974 and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and how they affect hospital and physician practices.

Read the following scenario and assessment instructions, then conduct a search to find a minimum of five current scholarly or professional credible resources related to the topics of information management and patient records.

Scenario
Imagine that you are a manager for a consulting company that assists U.S. health care organizations in streamlining processes, driving business outcomes, and restructuring their organizations to better prepare for the legal aspects of health care in the United States related to information management and patient records. Your director has asked you to develop a strategic planning resource packet that your firm will use to assist clients in protecting against these concerns.

Instructions
In a 7 page resource packet:

Explain the legal importance of maintaining complete and accurate records and the ownership of and who can access a patient’s medical record.
Describe from a legal perspective the advantages and disadvantages of electronic medical records.
Describe a variety of ways in which medical records have been falsified and the importance of medical records in legal proceedings.
Describe the purpose of the Privacy Act of 1974 and HIPAA and how they affect health care organizations.
Use legal terms and principles to identify key considerations that health care organizations must keep in mind when conducting strategic planning related to information management and patient records.
Be sure to organize your resource packet logically, and use headings and subheadings as appropriate.

Additional Requirements
Your assessment should also meet the following requirements:

Written communication: Should be clear, concise, well organized, and free of errors that detract from the overall message, as expected of a professional management resource.
Length:7 double-spaced pages, excluding cover and reference pages.
APA format: Citations and references should be formatted according to current APA style. Refer to the Supplemental Resources link in the courseroom navigation panel for additional information on APA style and formatting.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

Use the rubric provided below to properly complete this:
-Explains and provides detailed examples of the legal importance of maintaining complete and accurate records and the ownership of who can access a patient’s medical record.
– Describes and provides detailed examples, from a legal perspective, of the advantages and disadvantages of electronic medical records.
-Describes and provides a detailed example of the ways in which medical records have been falsified while elaborating on the importance of medical records in legal proceedings.
-Describes the purpose of the Privacy Act of 1974 and HIPAA and provides a detailed example of how they affect health care organizations.
-Identifies and provides an in-depth discussion with examples on key considerations that health care organizations must keep in mind when conducting strategic planning related to information management and patient records.
-Writes in a manner that is extremely clear and effective, consistent with business practices, scholarly as appropriate, free of grammatical errors, and consistently uses APA style to cite and reference any resources used.

Legal aspects of healthcare information
Student’s name
Institution affiliation
Date

Legal aspects of Healthcare Information
Understanding the legal aspect of the principles governing health information management is an imperative part of every organizational setup. By so doing, it ensures that the organization adheres to all these policies and evade unnecessary legal implications, Healthcare sector continues to become an information-intensive sector as more and more data is generated daily, with each part of the process being efficiently documented for future reviews. Thus, it is important to understand the legal aspect and ethics represent protecting health care information in the contemporary world (Stimson, 2016). The information includes patients’ medical history documents, clinical findings, operation notes, diagnostic test results and patients’ progress notes, and discharge sheets. Failure to adhere to these provisions of the policies can lead to mandatory structural reshuffle, revoke of practicing license, hefty fines from violations of the provisions, and, in extreme cases, total shut down of the health care facility.
. The medical sector is a very information-intensive practice which requires all-round expertise to in both medically and technologically. It is imperative to in health care to facilitate easy access to patient records for reviews and management. It relies on the documents for evidence to clear medical negligence allegations by patients or family on the legal aspect. In the event of an accusation of negligence, medical evidence comes in handy in acquittal or sentencing of a medical practitioner (Fakhrzad, 2020).additionally, for making health insurance claims, health insurance payment requires evidence from properly kept medical records before disbursement of funds to clear medical expenses.

Advantages and disadvantages of electronic health records
The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, initiated for the use of electronic health records (EHRs) means for the storage of medical records. The medical records’ storage is undergoing a massive shift, as most facilities are transitioning from paper to electronic records. Electronic health records have come in handy, especially in the legal systems in different aspects. Herein are a few pros and cons of adopting the electronic health record system in the; litigation process (Alpert, 2016).
Firstly, it has created easy access to medical records. Many facilities have adopted the use of online portals where the data is store chronologically; thus, it is easy to retrieve when need be especially for use in the legal system. Secondly, the electronic records have reduced the bulk in documentation necessary for court hearings; this makes it less difficult to review the data, unlike perusing through bulk paperwork at this moment information may be lost on the process. Thirdly, electronic records help capture more that would otherwise have been ignored by paperwork to save on time (Alpert, 2016). This detailed information has helped exonerate medical practitioners if they are sued for negligence by the patients or their families. Lastly, electronic records are a more secure mode of storage of evidence and are not highly susceptible to be lost or damaged when necessary precautionary measures are taken; thus, information form years back can be retrieved in a few minutes rather than sorting out through bulk documentation.
However, the use of electronic health records storage systems is not without a share of challenges that could affect its use in the litigation process. Firstly, electronic health records systems have a potential risk of privacy breach due to the increase in health information dissemination and exchange electronically. The privacy breach which leads to legal implications, thus costing the in compensations. Secondly, in the event of HIPPA violations following the improper training on the guidelines, it could attract from between $100 to$1.5 million in fines for breach of the Act. Thirdly, the regular updates may lead to loss of the data, and whereby there are no backup plans means complete loss of evidence that may be necessary for the legal system. Moreover, the electronic data are highly susceptible to falsification, subject to this could alter the validity of the information, thus inadmissible in a court of law (Alpert, 2016).
Falsification of documents
During the litigation process, medical records undergo an authentication to attest to its legitimacy. This process illustrates the authorship of health record entries; these records should meet the standards of use in a legal process, such as determining if the request is valid. Secondly, validate the format if it is authentic to be used in a subpoena or court order. Pretty often, falsification of documents occurs, which could carry consequences for the practitioner for essence cancellation of their liability insurance policy or their practicing licenses (Stimson, 2016). There different forms of health record falsification methods, which include. Firstly, by altering the information about the type of treatment a patient received. Secondly, whereby information about the treatment administered to a patient is omitted at any time. Thirdly, altering the information regarding the treatment timeline and finally revising entries of the patient’s data with new information.
This process of falsification of the medical data can favor or against a patient in a court of law. However, falsification of any medical record, be it electronically or paper documents are considered malpractice of tampering with evidence that could lead to detrimental consequences. It is considered felony crime and could attract hefty fines and loss of credibility (Stimson, 2016). A lot of legal entities have ordered the payment of punitive damages to discourage the falsification of documents. Additionally, falsification of medical records could lead to loss of insurance cover. The health insurance provider will be within the law to cancel professional liability cover for a person found and charged for data falsification.
Importance of privacy in health information
It is imperative to uphold privacy when handling health information to protect the patient’s privacy and dignity. Personally, identifiable health information breach is among the leading cause of privacy breaches. The complexity of privacy has led to the enactment of many bills passed to address health information privacy. Among them were the HIPPA, Health and the Privacy Act of 1974 and HIPPA, which have played an imperative role in defining healthcare information privacy and security in recent years (Saquella, 2020).
The Privacy Act of 1974
The privacy act was enacted in 1974 as part of the United States federal laws. The Act governs the gathering, use and dissemination of personally identifiable information of individuals whose records are contained in the federal agencies’ systems. It prohibits the disclosure of personally identifiable information without the consent of the subject individuals. However, this Act can allow for disclosure under the provisions of the twelve statutory exceptions. Secondly, the Act’s provisions grants individuals rights to access agency records where be (Saquella, 2020). Additionally, grants them the right to amend the agency of records if the records are inaccurate, incomplete or irrelevant. The privacy act also establishes a code of fair information practice mandating agencies to comply with the collection, maintenance and distribution of records as per the statutory norms
Healthcare information is highly sought sector, as perpetrators continue to devise elusive means of to steal data; thus health care providers and practitioners need to understand the provisions of the Privacy Act and comply with them to the latter to avoid incurring hefty penalties, and mandatory structural reorganizations in case of violations. The provisions of the Act govern a range of violations, including unknowing violations whereby the practitioner intentionally violates the rules. Secondly, reasonable cause where the practitioner or subject should have done due diligence failed before disseminating the information. Moreover, willful neglect where the practitioner acted willfully, albeit being aware of the regulations. These penalties can attract a maximum of 1.5 million annually (Saquella, 2020). These rules are to be adhered to by medical practitioners, health insurance companies. Health care facilities and any third party entities involved in the receiving and transmission of health information.
HIPAA
The Health insurance portability and Accountability Act HIIPA was enacted in 1996.HIPPA is one of the renowned statutes in matters of privacy and security of electronic health information. The purposes of HIPPA is primarily for the enacting the standards for privacy of individually identifiable health information, also known as the privacy rules. These policies protect the personally identifiable information, Private health information, and notably ensures that medical practices are held accountable for the privacy of health information. They have provisions for training medical employees of the requirements and provisions of the Act. Secondly, educating the patients on the privacy of their health information and notably securing the information enduring that they are not easily accessible by unauthorized personnel (Edemekong, 2020).
Additionally, the security rule protects medical records’ privacy, providing the guidelines for the storage, accessibility, and dissemination of medical information. Thirdly is the transaction rule, which mandates transaction codes to ensure the safety of HIPPA transactions, ensuring the safety and accuracy of an individual’s medical history (Cohen, 2018). Additionally, it ensures that all the covered entities comply with the provisions in their workforce. Lastly, they detect and protect against security breaches that could violate the information’s security and integrity by all included parties in the collection, storage, and dissemination of health information.
Following the enactment of HIPPA, it has posed such a threat to many health care organizations when dealing with patient information. The provisions of the HIPAA rules consisted of so many rules thus making the compliance a daunting process the Act has created an art of compliance with is very imperative in the dynamic of health care within many organizations; this Act has also increased patient confidentiality building a rapport of health organizations (Edemekong, 2020). However for those organizations that comply with the provisions have seen the benefits of the Act in safeguarding them from legal implications that could result in loss of practicing licenses or payment of hefty fines due to violations, it has given patients more control over their information while defining boundaries over the use as dissemination of the information, it has made it possible to hold people accountable for the actions, with civil and criminal fines imposed in violation of the rights (Senthilkumar, 2018).
Conclusion
Adhering to the regulation sand policies provided on matters of privacy and security of healthcare information is imperative for organizations to avoid violations. The storage of medical records has transitioned from paper storage to electronic storage, which has come in handy in the storage of bulky information in the form of easily available files and retrievable files. HIPAA and the Privacy Act of 1974 were acted to provide guidelines regarding personally identifiable information safeguarding suspects’ interests by providing a sense of security o for their information. Notably, holding every individual accountable for the actions has enhanced information security compliance.

References
Alpert, J. S. (2016). The electronic medical record in 2016: Advantages and disadvantages. Digital Medicine, 2(2), 48.
Cohen, I. G., & Mello, M. M. (2018). HIPAA and protecting health information in the 21st century. Jama, 320(3), 231-232.
Edemekong, P., Annamaraju, P., & Haydel, M. (2020). Health insurance portability and accountability act (HIPAA). StatPearls.
Fakhrzad, M., Fakhrzad, N., & Dehghani, M. (2020). The role of electronic health records in presenting health information. Interdisciplinary Journal of Virtual Learning in Medical Sciences, 2(4), 31-40.
Saquella, A. J. (2020). PERSONAL DATA VULNERABILITY: CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES WITH THE CALIFORNIA CONSUMER PRIVACY ACT. Jurimetrics, 60(2), 215-245.
Senthilkumar, S. A., Rai, B. K., Meshram, A. A., Gunasekaran, A., & Chandrakumarmangalam, S. (2018). Big data in healthcare management: A review of the literature. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Business, 4(2), 57-69.
Stimson, C. J. (2016). Hospital Risk Management and the US Legal System: An Introduction to US Medical Malpractice Tort Law. In Risk Management in Medicine (pp. 69-76). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

The Syndrome and Psychopathology

Scenario: You are an investigator for Child Protective Services in your community. One of the most difficult aspects of interviewing is the interview of a suspected victim of child sexual abuse. Often, the first interviewers are detectives or investigators from the police department with little or no training for interviewing child sexual abuse victims. The Commander of the Sex Crimes Unit would like to you to identify errors in interviewing by police investigators when questioning child sex crime victims about the circumstances during the alleged offense(s). The psychopathology of the suspect and the victim are very important, but the victim can be misled unintentionally by police resulting in false or inaccurate complaint information.

The Commander of the Sex Crimes Unit would like you to outline and explain the specific areas to be avoided when questioning a child as a sex crime victim.

Specifically, he is concerned with the following:
The use of suggestive questions
The implication of confirmation by other people
Use of positive and negative consequences
Repetitious questioning
Inviting speculation

In a 3–5-page paper, address the specific concerns, and explain why it is preferable to have the child interviewed by a person with the qualifications to potentially testify as an expert witness in subsequent criminal trials.

Please make sure that the paper is well-organized and concise.

The Syndrome and Psychopathology
Name
Institution
Date

The Syndrome and Psychopathology
Child molestation or rather sexual abuse in children is a type of abuse where an older person uses chilren for sexual purposes through pressuring, asking or other means by child grooming, child sexual exploitation or indecent exposure. The sex crime unit investigates crimes that involve sexual violence. As an investigator for Child Protective Services, authorized to serve my community, certain areas need to be addressed to avoid them when either the detectives or investigators from the department of police question a child as a victim of sex crime.
The first area to be discussed is the use of suggestive questions. A suggestive question is one that portrays that a specific answer could be obvious, acceptable or correct. For example, “so you agreed to kiss, right?” A suggestive question also falsely introduces a presupposition as a fact that is accepted in the question. That kind of a question distorts the memory of the child being interviewed by tricking him or her into answering in a way that might not be true, but it might be true (Duke, Uhl, Price & Wood, 2016). It also causes inconsistency with their feelings, which could be unintentional or deliberate. Another example of a suggestive question is, “Don’t you think doing that was wrong?” instead of phrasing the question as “Do you think doing that was wrong?” there is a huge difference in the way the two questions are phrased.
The second area is the implication of confirmation by other people. That could generally be termed as the power of disconfirming evidence or confirmation bias where an investigator cherry-picks information that confirms an already existing belief or idea. Two investigators can have opposing views regarding a case, but when a piece of similar evidence appears, both feel validated by it (Kappes, Harvey, Lohrenz, Montague & Sharot, 2020). When a human understanding adopts an opinion, it draws everything else to support and agree with it. There could be more weight of instances that disagree, yet they are despised or neglected or rather, some distinction sets aside and rejects.
The third area is the use of positive and negative consequences. During questioning of a child involved in a sex crime, it is wise to look at the positive and negative consequences. A positive consequence or rather a reinforcement demonstrates to a child that they have done something that is not approvable. In contrast, a negative consequence or discipline shows that the child has done something inappropriate or unacceptable (Albaek, Binder & Milde, 2019). A positive consequence is where the investigator increases the probability that a certain behavior could occur. In contrast, the negative consequence, investigators often decrease the probability that a behavior will occur in the future.
The fourth area is repetitious questioning when dealing with children involved in cases of sexual abuse. When children are asked repeated questions using suggestive prompts, they are more likely to change the answers they had given earlier on. Children are, therefore, more susceptible to suggestibility (Christensen, 2017). They feel like they are not appeasing the interviewer, so they will tend to change their narrative. Children will give answers that they think the interviewers would like to hear to avoid getting into trouble. Several studies have shown that repeating questions to children in closed question format has led to a change in the response of a child, which in most cases does not lead to improved accuracy in the child’s answers.
The fifth area is inviting speculation, which is a way that investigators use to increase false recall in children when being questioned for a sexual abuse case. This inviting speculation technique involves several aspects, which include first, asking the children to pretend or create their events (Otgaar, Howe, Merckelbach & Muris, 2018). Second, asking these children to think hard, especially by asking them what they think happened. Third, conditional tense in a question, for example, asking a child what he or she thinks that the suspect could have done in that situation.
This kind of technique is usually used when the child has not answered his own due to emotional or social barriers or lack of memory of events. In most cases, this technique consistently results in more false responses by children, especially those that remember events vaguely or lack the memory of events completely. It also permits children in their minds to be creative, to guess and play games. In most cases, it usually has some serious repercussions; therefore, it is not wise to use it to elicit testimony from child witnesses.
Testimonies made by children play an important role in sexual abuse cases. In evaluating the quality of a witness’s statement, the context of the interview and the interviewing techniques have to be considered. In a high publicized daycare abuse cases, the interview techniques mostly used are suggestive and directive. All of the techniques mentioned above have been shown empirically to elicit false statements from children. Interviews with children as victims or witnesses in cases of sexual abuse, especially in daycare ritual abuse involve techniques of suggestive interviewing.

References
Duke, M. C., Uhl, E. R., Price, H., & Wood, J. M. (2016). Avoiding problems in child abuse interviews and investigations. In Forensic interviews regarding child sexual abuse (pp. 219-236). Springer, Cham.
Kappes, A., Harvey, A. H., Lohrenz, T., Montague, P. R., & Sharot, T. (2020). Confirmation bias in the utilization of others’ opinion strength. Nature Neuroscience, 23(1), 130-137.
Albaek, A. U., Binder, P. E., & Milde, A. M. (2019). Entering an emotional minefield: professionals’ experiences with facilitators to address abuse in child interviews. BMC health services research, 19(1), 1-12.
Christensen, L. (2017). Victims of child sexual abuse: The psychology of victims. The Psychology of Criminal and Antisocial Behavior (pp. 419-438). Academic Press.
Otgaar, H., Howe, M. L., Merckelbach, H., & Muris, P. (2018). Who is the better eyewitness? Adults and children. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

Preventing Juvenile crime through social Process Theories

Social Process Principles
This assignment supports the following lesson objectives
Examine policy implications of social development theories
Compare and contrast sociological theories of criminology

Assignment Overview
This writing assignment explores the social process theories underlying many of the juvenile delinquency prevention programs and initiatives.

Deliverables
A 1,000 WORD MINIMUM paper in APA format with a cover and reference page. The paper MUST cite the references correctly.
Assignment Details
Step 1: Conduct research.
Search the Internet for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention website. http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/ (Links to an external site.) or http://www.ojjdp.gov/programs/ProgResults.asp (Links to an external site.)

Browse the site to learn about programs and initiatives supported by OJJDP. Some of the programs listed on this website include:
Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program
Drug-Free Communities Support Program
Juvenile Mentoring Program
Safe Futures Program
Strengthening America’s Families initiative
Step 2: Choose five programs.

Select at least five of the programs or initiatives listed on the OJJDP website and study the underlying philosophy associated with each.

Step 3: Consider the following questions as they relate to each of the five programs or initiatives:

Which of these programs appear to be based on social process principles? On social development concepts?
Are there any programs listed on the OJJDP site that seem to be built on assumptions drawn from social structural approaches? If so, which programs?

Step 4: Classify the five programs.
Classify each of the five programs or initiatives according to its theoretical underpinnings.

Are these programs successful?
How does the particular social process theory that the program subscribes to add or take away from that success?
Step 5: Write a paper.
Write a 1,000 WORD paper in Microsoft Word, incorporating the information you collected in Steps 2 through 4.
*The research paper MUST be in APA format with a properly formatted cover and reference page.


Preventing Juvenile crime through social Process Theories
Student’s Name:
Institution:

Preventing Juvenile crime through social Process Theories
Step 1 and 2: Preventing Juvenile crime through social Process Theories
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention offers different programs to juvenile offenders based on different theoretical underpinnings to achieve the criminal justice system’s different goals. The different juvenile programs are directed towards achieving treatment goals, deterrence, retribution, and incapacitation (DuBois, Herrera, and Rivera, 2017). In most cases, the juvenile is directed towards treatment and rehabilitation as compared to basic punishments. The different programs offered under the OJJDP include the Causes and correlates of Delinquency program, strengthening America’s Families initiative, Drug-Free Communities Support Program, safe futures program, and juvenile mentoring program.
The different juvenile programs under the OJJDP have different theoretical underpinnings that act as the basis for their formation and development. In this regard, the theoretical underpinning includes the social process and the evolutionary biology and brain sciences theoretical perspectives. The social process theoretical perspective goes that the human mind is a “blank slate” at birth and is developed through cultural experiences. Human nature is fundamentally good, but people learn to be anti-social with time (DuBois, Herrera, and Rivera, 2017). Therefore, the rehabilitation process must be directed towards enabling the victims to unlearn the anti-social behaviors. On the other hand, the brain science/ evolutionary biology theoretical perspective argues that crime engagement arises from human nature that evolves controlled by concerns of living things to survive and reproduce. Therefore, the behaviors among the children involve certain traits evolving in response to survival and reproductive issues. The development and creation of different juvenile programs are based on different theoretical perspectives that form the programs’ basis for the change and unlearning of anti-social or criminal behavior among the juvenile population.
Step 3: Programs based on social process principles
The chosen juvenile program under the OJJDP is based on social process principles. The social process entails how people or groups interact, adjust, readjust, and establish relationships and behavior patterns modified and strengthened through social interactions (Hartinger and Rine, 2011). The juvenile programs based on the social process principles include the strengthening America’s Families initiative, drug-free communities support program, and causes and correlates of delinquency program.
The strengthening America’s Families initiative entails an evidence-based family skill training program for high risk and general population families. The parents and youths join weekly SFP skill classes to learn parenting skills, refusal skills, and youth life. The sessions are first conducted separately for the parents and youths to hold joint family sessions (Hartinger and Rine, 2011). The process enhances family bonding, parental involvement, positive communication, decreased family conflict, decreased family conflict, increased youth competencies, and improve youth grades. Consequently, the drug-free communities support program mobilizes society to prevent and reduce substance abuse. The program strengthens infrastructure among local partners to ensure a significant reduction in substance abuse among the youths. Society is engaged to ensure the reduction of drug abuse and freeing people from addiction. Moreover, the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program enhances the understanding of gross delinquency, drug use, and violence by examining individual development in the context of peers, family, school, and the community. The study evaluates the child’s behavior, peer behavior, family functioning, neighborhood characteristics, and school performance that incline one to engage in delinquency (De Vries et al., 2015). The understanding of delinquency enables society and the government to develop strategies and policies to ensure that delinquency is prevented by addressing the cause of behaviors. Therefore, the three juvenile programs are based on a social process that appreciates that anti-social and criminal behaviors are learned, and they can be unlearnt through social interventions.
Different juvenile programs listed on OJJDP are developed based on the assumption derived from social structure approaches. The social structure in this context argues that criminal and anti-social behaviors arise from social institutions’ arrangement where humans interact and live together. The social structure inclines society members to adopt different changes (De Vries et al., 2015). In this case, the strengthening American Families initiative is founded on the social structure assumptions. Family is regarded as a social unit that influences the growth and development of a child in terms of behavior. The program ensures that the family is improved and enhanced to enable the youths to makes the right decisions, thus influencing their behaviors to avoid crimes and anti-social behaviors.
Step 4: Classification of programs
The juvenile programs under the OJJDP can effectively be based on their theoretical underpinnings of social process and biological evolution. The causes and correlates of delinquency, strengthening America’s families initiative, and drug-free communities support program fall under the social process theoretical perspective (Hartinger and Rine, 2011). These juvenile programs appreciate the fact that anti-social and criminal behaviors are learned within the social structure, and they can be addressed through the adoption of social approaches and solutions. The strategies and solutions act directly to the social groupings to alter their negative operation, thus ensuring they adopt the right behaviors.
On the other hand, the Safe future program and Juvenile mentoring programs fall under the evolutionary biological perspective. The juvenile programs appreciate that anti-social and criminal behavior is innate and developed with time (Smith, 2011). The fact that the behaviors are not learned but developed within the people can be countered by altering the mind to appreciate and practice positive behaviors. In this case, the programs subject the youth to education and training sessions inclined towards altering their mindset to appreciate positive behaviors.
The success of the programs
The juvenile programs successfully ensure that the youths can avoid anti-social and criminal citizens such that they grow to be law-abiding citizens. The juvenile program can transform the youth from being delinquent to adopt positive behaviors in the interest of the common good. The programs assess and evaluate the root cause of the criminal and delinquent behaviors among the youth and adopt strategies and approaches to eliminate factors contributing to such behaviors. The juvenile programs are most effective when they are combined to address similar delinquent issues. Therefore, juvenile programs offer a relevant solution to delinquent and criminal behaviors.
Contribution of social process theory
The social process theory adopted in the different juvenile programs success arises from the fact that they work to alter the social structure that contributes to delinquent and criminal behaviors. The social process theory has a collective approach to handling delinquent behaviors, thus ensuring that factors contributing to delinquent and criminal behavior are perfectly countered.
Conclusion
The correctional facilities or system have different juvenile programs with different theoretical underpinnings, all directed towards improving the youths and preventing them from engaging in anti-social and criminal behaviors. The different juvenile programs address the source of criminal and delinquent behaviors to ensure that they offer perfect solutions to ensure that youths transform into law-abiding citizens.

References
de Vries, S. L., Hoeve, M., Assink, M., Stams, G. J. J., & Asscher, J. J. (2015). Practitioner review: effective ingredients of prevention programs for youth at risk of persistent juvenile delinquency–recommendations for clinical practice. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(2), 108-121.
DuBois, D. L., Herrera, C., & Rivera, J. (2017). Investigation of Long-Term Effects of the Big Brothers Big Sisters Community-Based Mentoring Program: Final Technical Report for OJJDP. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice.
Hartinger-Saunders, R. M., & Rine, C. M. (2011). The intersection of social process and social structure theories to address juvenile crime: Toward a collaborative intervention model. Journal of human behavior in the social environment, 21(8), 909-925.
Hartinger-Saunders, R. M., & Rine, C. M. (2011). The intersection of social process and social structure theories to address juvenile crime: Toward a collaborative intervention model. Journal of human behavior in the social environment, 21(8), 909-925.
Smith, W. B. (2011). Youth leaving foster care: A developmental, relationship-based approach to practice. Oxford University Press.

Hate Crimes

Imagine that you have been asked to deliver a podcast to a community that has recently been in the news due to a rise in hate crimes. Write your assignment as if it were a transcript of your podcast. Address the following in your podcast transcript.

Explain what determines whether or not a crime is categorized as a hate crime.
Explain how social media can fuel hate crime within a community.
Describe two strategies for bringing cultural awareness into the community in effort to reduce hate crime.
Your assignment must be at least three pages in length. If outside sources are used, please adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. APA formatting, however, is not necessary.
Hate Crimes

Student’s Name
University
Course
Professor
Date

HATE CRIMES
How community has recently been on the headlines on matters of hate crimes and for this reason, I want us to take this time and reflect on what hate crimes are and what it entails. First off, I will be talking on the determinants to show on whether or not a crime is categorized as hate crime. In this regard we must therefore equip ourselves with the knowledge of what hate crimes really are. Hate crimes were defined by the FBI as property crimes or violent for example, arson, murder vandalism or even assault towards specific minority in the population (Perry, 2001). Hate crimes have their motivations stemming from whole or partly by the offenders bias against race, religion, disability, gender identity and even sexual orientation. Therefore hate crimes, in a nutshell, encompasses the criminal offences that are motivated by the offenders towards specific population of people (Perry,2001). For example, when an offence is committed against a person because they belong to a specific religion or they identify with specific sexuality, that incidence of crime can be categorized as hate crime.
In categorizing a crime as a hate crime, the motivation behind the offender committing the crime is looked into. In the United States for example, there has been reported crimes that are committed against the black minority or even the Muslims. When a crime is committed against a person because the color of their skin does not correspond to the majority population of the religion in which they identify with does not correspond to the religion that the majority population corresponds to them these crimes are categorized as hate crimes. Incidences of these crimes are motivated by bias and they may include physical assault, bullying, destroying properties and even offensive graffiti. With this knowledge on hate crimes; anytime that a crime is committed against you and they are motivated by bias, then that qualifies these crimes as hate crimes.
Social media shapes hate crimes through the hate speech that people posts against the minority in the community. Social media has become a hub through which hate crimes are forged and in this case, it is evident that most of the hate crimes that get their motivation through hate speech have very good breeding grounds in the social media sites. For example, numerous attacks on the immigrants and other minority groups in the social media have a greater connection with the violent acts that these minority groups do suffer in the hands of the offenders who come from the larger population (Gerstenfeld, 2017). As much as hate crimes can also be echoed from the changes in the political climates, social media has a very high influence that has magnified this discord. For example, people may spread rumors and invectives online and as these invectives continue to spread, the population against which these invectives are directed violence such as lynching, and even ethnic cleansing at worst. The social media companies therefore have a role in ensuring that they censor the content that people post online so that the rise in hate speech is minimized.
Consequently, fake news in the social media has also fueled hate crimes. Fake news is the talk of the today’s media outlet. There are a lot of people who are victim of the social media fake news that has is being posted against specific population of people. This fake news has also led to stereotyping thereby making the majority of the population to develop an attitude towards specific people in the community (Jacobs and Potter, 1998). With the attitude and perspective already build against specific people in the population, there is a higher probability of these people suffering crimes that are motivated from the things that are posted on the social media site. Social media sites therefore can fuel a lot of hate crimes if the contents that people post are not censored.
In trying to reduce hate crimes in the society, we should embrace cultural diversity. We should understand that us human, we are all born free with equal rights and dignity. When we understand this fundamental human right, we will embrace people from all walks as equal. Our schools and institutions should see to it that cultural diversity is embraced. Teaching of school student on cultural diversity and inclusivity should be at its all time high. When we get the right education, hostility will reduce and the reduction in hostility will reduced the crimes that are bias related. Consequently, the community should also be responsible in raising individuals who are open-minded and tolerant towards others in the society. Embracing of meaning dialogue among the people leaving in the community is also essential in the reducing of crimes that are realized because of bias (Gerstenfeld,2017). Dialogue should come first before any adverse actions are taken towards specific person or group of people. Secondly, the community should also be made aware that all human are equal before the law and the law enforcers should take responsibility of convicting people who are guilty of hate crimes. Besides, leaders should not engage in speeches that are likely to be interpreted wrongly by others the community as this may spark hate crimes. Therefore, leaders should be a role model and discourage people against hate crimes.

References

Gerstenfeld, P. B. (2017). Hate crimes: Causes, controls, and controversies. Sage Publications.
Jacobs, J. B., & Potter, K. (1998). Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics. Oxford University Press on Demand.
Perry, B. (2001). In the name of hate: Understanding hate crimes. Psychology Press.

Police Policy & Criminal Procedure

Imagine that the Supreme Court has issued a decision that reverses Arizona v. Hicks (1987), and the Supreme Court under a new case (fictional case), entitled New York v. Henderson (2016), now holds that the plain view doctrine does allow police officers to seize on less than probable cause, any item they happen to see that is in “plain view.”

Write an essay of 750-1,000 words that addresses the following:

Explain the “plain-view” doctrine and the probable cause requirement with respect to this doctrine.

Explain how the adoption of the Henderson case would affect public policy.

If a policing agency disagrees with the Henderson case, are they required to follow the case or may they be allowed to provide more procedural safe guards as inferred in Arizona v. Hicks? Provide examples.

What happens if various interpretations of the “plain view” doctrine create significant differences between jurisdictions?

Be sure to cite three to five relevant scholarly sources in support of your content. Use only sources found at the GCU Library, government websites/legal case sites or those provided in Topic Materials.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Police Policy & Criminal Procedure
Plain-view doctrine is a rationale that rules that objects that fall in the plain view of an officer who is in the right to be in that position to have the view are subject to seizure without a warrant. The same rationale works if the officer needs a warrant or probable cause to search and seize; his lawful observation is used for those grounds. The probable cause requirement limits the plain view doctrine. The probable cause requirement requires that officers have probable cause to believe that items in their plain view are contraband before they may search and seize them. Plain view doctrine still protects their people’s rights, houses against unreasonable searches and seizures, which are not violated. In the rationale, no warrants are issued, but the probable cause supported by oath and affirmation is allowed, which mainly describes the place to be searched and what items to be seized.
In Henderson V. United States, Armarcion Henderson experienced a plain error rule in which, in the trial, the judge illegally imposed a far longer sentence on him than is required by the law. In the same context, the universal agreement adopted was improperly enhanced, and Henderson could not obtain relief from the court in the case before the Supreme Court on November 28, 2012. Henderson faced a sentence of 33 to 41 months under advisory sentencing guidelines. There was no objection from the government and the defense counsel on the sentencing range. The Supreme Court held that a court could not impose or lengthen a prison sentence in order to enable an offender to complete a treatment program and promote rehabilitation. The fifth circuit determined that there was no precedent on the issue of imposing a longer sentence at the time; there was no plain error and affirmed the court’s decision on the case. This affects public policy in a way that the court would have the freedom to apply rules in the way they wish if there was no precedent on the public policy issue.
Suppose a policing agency disagrees with the determination of the Henderson case. In that case, they must provide more procedural safeguards as inferred in the Case of Arizona V. Hicks. The procedural safeguards evaluate the actions of the policeman within the purview of the Fourth Amendment. In this case, the plain view doctrine did not render the search reason as per the Fourth Amendment. The policeman’s actions directed to the stereo equipment were not reasonable as it was unrelated to the justification of entering the apartment. The procedures require that a warrantless search must be strictly circumscribed by exigencies which justify the initiation.
Various interpretations of the plain view doctrine create significant differences between jurisdictions, which has led to the significant modification of the original principles for providing a viable basis for warrantless seizures. Courts have modified the nature and extent of the plain view doctrine through the misinterpretation of the prior valid intrusion requirement that supports an interest in privacy not based only upon an open view. The courts have failed to clarify the discovery before the intrusion that satisfies the inadvertency requirement where the good faith omission from a warrant is sufficient. The doctrine will remain uncertain on the plain view doctrine’s scope if the prior valid intrusion requirement is not honored and the parameters of inadvertence not drawn clearly.

References
Gibson, C. W. (2020). Reexamining the Government’s Interest in Border Searches of Digital Devices. U. Chi. L. Rev. Online, 1.
Mayer, M. (2019). The Proper Future of the Plain Smell Doctrine in Arizona: Concerns after State v. Sisco. Ariz. St. LJ, 51, 799.
Kumar, Z. (2020). On Kansas v. Glover and the Issue of Reasonable Suspicion. Duke J. Const. L. & Pub. Pol’y Sidebar, 15, 29.
Grossman, S. (2016). Whither Reasonable Suspicion: The Supreme Court’s Functional Abandonment of the Reasonableness Requirement for Fourth Amendment Seizures. Am. Crim. L. Rev., 53, 349.
Ormerod, P. C., & Trautman, L. J. (2017). A Descriptive Analysis of the Fourth Amendment and the Third-Party Doctrine in the Digital Age. Alb. LJ Sci. & Tech., 28, 73.

Ethics in Administrative Justice

1. Identify a major ethical failure in the administration of justice highlighted in the media in the last six months
2. Describe how the implementation or enforcement of ethical standards would impact the ethical failure you identified.

Ethics in Administrative Justice
Students name
Institution affiliation
Date

Ethics in Administrative Justice
Ethics is an imperative aspect of every organizational setup. The ethical principles guide the professionals in decision making. Administrative justice is faced with numerous ethical dilemmas, especially given the external and internal influences such as public expectations and media influence. The officials in administrative justice are compelled to act ethically while portraying accountability and professionalism (Doyle, 2019). To the public, he was sworn to serve. Ethical guile is the moral obligation the defines decisions they make. Simultaneously, they have the discretion that influences their judgment and choices; ethics influence their path to the right choices. However, there have been numerous causes of ethical failure in administrative justice, especially the law enforcement agencies, about how they deal with the day-to-day issues. This paper discusses one of the administrative justice ethical failures that hit the news in the past six months.
In the past weeks, there has been active civil unrest following the death of Gorge Floyd. Human activists condemn racial profiling among law enforcement officials and those in administrative posts in the United States. Racial profiling entails the act of targeting a subject based on their racial or ethnic group rather than suspicion. There have been incidents of racial profiling carried out by law enforcement and administrative officials; however, the recent death of Gorge Floyd exposed the in-depth of systemic racism and incidents of police brutality (Murrell, 2020) .while police are legally permitted to use force, they are compelled to deploy the use of excessive force on in justifiable circumstances, and when all other options have failed, thus it comes as a last resort. However, in America, police sometimes are excessively aggressive, failing to uphold their ethical standards when dealing with a civilian. The death of George Floyd questioned police ethical decision-making skills as it exposes the ethical failure in administrative justice.
Additionally, they are compelled to exercise fairness without discriminating; however, African Americans are vulnerable to police brutality than their white counterparts. According to statistics, it likely that 1 in every 1000 black men is likely to die under rogue administrative officials’ hands. Ethical obligations govern what officials act either to do what is right or wrong. For law enforcement officials, the community holds them with extreme standards whereby they are expected to do things that reflect on their integrity while maintaining public trust (Souryal, 2019). Implementation of ethical standards ensures that, firstly, law enforcement upholds the law and rights. Law enforcement officials swear an oath to uphold the law and defend the rights of the civil. However, they overstep this law when they act in a discriminatory manner.
Furthermore, upholding ethical standards ensures more police accountability. Therefore, officials become more accountable for their actions, for essence, during apprehension, ensuring that they handle individuals with the utmost respect. Additionally, ethical standards guide them, especially when they have to make split seconds decisions about the use of force, which is the leading death. Moreover, the implementation of ethical standards ensures that administrative officials act impartially. This entails treating everyone equally under the law eliminating discrimination based on one’s ethnicity or the color of their skin. (Doyle, 2019)

References
. Doyle, M., & O’Brien, N. (2019). Reimagining administrative justice: human rights in small places. Springer Nature.
Murrell, A. J. (2020). Why did you not stop them? Aversive racism and the responsibility of bystanders. Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion: An International Journal.
Souryal, S. S., & Whitehead, J. T. (2019). Ethics in criminal justice: In search of the truth. Routledge.

Hacking is an ethical issue in the technological world

Section 1 of paper the issue

For the first section of the paper write about the cyberethical issue to answer why is it an ethical issue and who are the proponents of each side of the issue. Explain the issue in detail using standard research techniques. You want to answer the following question

What is the issue?
Why is it an ethical issue?
What are the moral foundation issues of the issue?
What is the scope of this issue, who is effected by this issue?
Please use 2 to 3 sources for your research. Internet sources are acceptable. Please use authoritative sources (not Wikipedia, thought looking at the sources Wikipedia got there information is acceptable).

Section 2 of paper the real world application

Find a recent (last 2 to 4 years) news article that pertains to the issue that you researched. For the second section answer the following questions

Write a summary of the article that you found
How is this article related to the issue from section one
Section 3 Conclusion

Write a short opinion section of where you see this issue going in the future.

Has this issue been resolved as an ethical issue?
Is it just starting to get developed?
What direction is this issue heading in the future?
Part 2 Presentation

Students will be required to share their research by a visual presentation (power point presentation at minimal, narrated ppt in wmf form or movie of some sort would be ideal) of their research. In addition, all research projects shall be submitted in a standard written format and comply with a scoring rubric.
Student Name:
Professor:
Course:
Date:
Hacking
Section 1
Hacking is an ethical issue in the technological world. Hacking takes the act of exploiting a computer system or network inside a computer to the advantage of a third party and at the user’s expense (Lenca and Haselager, 127). The hacker gains unauthorized access or control to computer network security systems for some illicit purposes. For instance, the hacker can use the password cracking algorithm to gain access to the computer system.
Hacking becomes an ethical issue since the hackers invade the user’s confidentiality by invading the computer and network system for their gain at the user’s expense. In hacking, the computer is used to implement fraudulent acts that include stealing personal or corporate data, privacy invasion, and fraud (Conti, Babbitt, and Nelson, 57). Hacking compromises the activities of digital devices such as computers, tablets, smartphones, and networks. The hackers are motivated by unlawful financial gains, information gathering (spying), and protests. Therefore, hacking becomes an ethical issue since it takes the unauthorized control of a computer or network system by a third party for illicit purposes at the user’s expense.
Hacking’s moral foundation is the invading of confidentiality and privacy at the user’s expense for fraudulent purposes. In this case, there is a need for a technological system to uphold the security and confidentiality of information and data as an ethical practice (Conti, Babbitt, and Nelson, 57). On the contrary, hackers exploit the security gaps and vulnerabilities in the computer and network system, thus violating privacy and confidentiality.
The scope of hacking involves the affected parties and devices. In this regard, the affected parties include the users of the computer and network system. The users are affected by losing sensitive and confidential data, thus making them vulnerable. The users can be individuals or groups of people. On the other hand, different devices and technology infrastructure such as computers are affected.
Section 2
Article: Election hacking: is it the end of democracy as we know it?
Source: https://www.information-age.com/election-hacking-end-democracy-123487698/
Nations across the globe have experienced election hacking, thus threatening the existence and operation of democracy. Interested parties in the elections hack election computers and network systems to compromise the voting process against the people’s will. The hackers, through political actors, compromise the elections intending to control the outcome. Hacktivists compromise the ballot while rogue governments control the outcome (Nick, 2). Election hacking can be implemented differently through physical hacking of the voting machines or aggressive social media campaigns directed to manipulating public opinion. In this regard, the election machines are tampered directly, interfering with the voting process or using social media to shape opinions. The hacktivists steal data, steal confidential data regarding the voters, and manipulate the election.
The hackers take advantage of the voting machine’s weaknesses or vulnerabilities to access the machines, thus manipulating them to get the desired election outcomes. The i-Vote is marred with security flaws that make it possible for hackers to access voting machines. Successful election hacking takes a combination of hacking processes and operations. In this case, voting machines are hacking, social media hacking, and covert and overt hacking. In voting machines hacking, the machines are tampered with to influence the elections’ outcome (Nick, 3). Social media hacking takes the scraping social media data, analyzing and identifying the most impressionable parties or individuals bombarded with fake and real advertisements to swing vote, thus influencing public opinion. Additionally, covert and overt hacking techniques are adopted to manipulate elections’ outcomes by individuals groups or the nation-state. Everything in the election computer system and the network is connected, making it possible to manipulate data and election through minor vulnerabilities.
The article is directly related to the hacking ethical issue as it involved unauthorized access to the systems and network to compromise the outcomes of an election. The hacking of voting machines and social media influences the election outcomes contrary to the people’s will and the dictates of democracy. Elections need to be free and fair and not influenced by external or internal forces.
Section 3: Conclusion
Different technological fields have consistently researched and adopted technological advancements and innovations to counter hacking operations. On the other hand, hacking attacks are countered by adopting best practices (Bowles, 7). In this regard, some of the ways of protecting against cyber-attacks include training employees/people on cyber-security principles, installation of antivirus and antispyware software, using of firewalls for internet connection, installation of software updates, making back-up copies for storage of vital information data, controlling physical access for computers or network components, securing of Wi-Fi networks, limitation of access for different parties to the system and adopting the regular changing of password.
The solutions and strategies to curb hacking has been in existence for a relatively long period. The development and research on countering hacking in individual, group, corporate or national devices have consistently been developed and improved in data and devices safety and security. The future of handling and countering hacking remains bright as research and innovations are made to secure systems and networks.

Work cited
Bowles, Matt. “The business of hacking and birth of an industry.” Bell Labs Technical Journal 17.3 (2012): 5-16.
Conti, Gregory, Thomas Babbitt, and John Nelson. “Hacking competitions and their untapped potential for security education.” IEEE Security & Privacy 9.3 (2011): 56-59.
Ienca, Marcello, and Pim Haselager. “Hacking the brain: brain–computer interfacing technology and the ethics of neurosecurity.” Ethics and Information Technology 18.2 (2016): 117-129.
Nick Ismail. “Election hacking: is it the end of democracy as we know it?” Information Age 18.2 (2020): 1-3. Retrieved from https://www.information-age.com/election-hacking-end-democracy-123487698/

Background on Police Brutality and Racial bias against Black Communities

Background on Police Brutality and Racial bias against Black Communities
Name
Institution
Date

Introduction
Violence against African-American community members by law enforcement has been a common practice and continues to influence policing culture within the United States even today. Walker (2011) defines police brutality against the black community as excessive physical force, psychological intimidation, and verbal assault. Walker adds that African Americans have a high probability of becoming police brutality victims than members of other communities or racial groups in the United States. Moreover, there has also been increased racial bias against a member of this community, with walker suggesting that compared to their white counterparts, blacks are more likely to be stopped by police for various social desirability factors or accosted by law enforcement while operating any motorized vehicle. Incidences of police brutality against African Americans and other minority communities have been increasing in recent history. The most famous incident is the brutal murder of George Floyd by former Minneapolis police officers. This incident has reinvigorated a common public debate regarding police brutality and racism against black communities and other minority groups. With protests spreading globally, there is growing pressure on lawmakers and police departments, especially within the United States, to undertake some measures ranging from defunding police departments to reforming law-enforcement tactics, among other measures. This discussion seeks to analyze the background of police brutality and racial bias against black communities and explores various measures that can be undertaken to address this problem.
Background on Police Brutality and Racial bias against Black Communities
The precursors to modern police departments within the United States include the violent slave patrols used in the southern states before the American civil war began. During this period, legal enforcement used black codes that were later followed by the Jim Crow legislation. Additionally, the early municipal departments within most developing cities within the US comprised overwhelmingly white majority who routinely brutalized the vulnerable minority communities. Consequently, thousands of African Americans were lynched by white vigilantes, with these crimes going unpunished by the existing judicial stem at the time. From the civil rights period and beyond, police officers have often used harsh and brutal force to suppress peaceful protests calling for an end to police brutality and racial bias against minority communities within the United States. These previous acts of police brutality against black communities and the judicial system’s inability to provide fair trials and prosecutions to such incidents have contributed to the current state of affairs.
Race appears to be a polarizing and powerful theme used in discourses around most fatal encounters between law enforcement and black communities. For example, ProPublica analysis conducted on deadly policing shootings between 2010 and 2012 revealed that young African American civilians had a 21 times likelihood of being killed by police officers than their white counterparts (Zuma, 2014). According to Michael Tonry, law professor, Whites usually excuse police brutality in the black communities due to the racial hatred they hold against African Americans. Based on this understanding, Tonry explains that black communities deserve the harsh treatment they often received within the criminal justice system. This analysis demonstrates a close relationship between police brutality and racial bias against black communities and other minority groups within the United States today.
A general view of this assertion may appear unfathomable but looking at the extensive research literature on this issue suggests that in most cases, African American males are often viewed as criminals, and it is a notion that is further enhanced in the media, general public, and through disparate sentencing outcomes. For example, Zuma (2014) demonstrated that African American males with Afrocentric features like darker skins, full lips, and broad noses, among others, are likely to receive longer sentences in the American judicial system compared to those having less Afrocentric features or are with straighter hair and lighter skin.
Plant and Peruche (2005), the study provides vital information regarding why law enforcement officers consider males from black communities as potential perpetrators, leading to various acts of police brutality. In the study, Plant and Peruche raise the idea that because males in black communities have been caricatured as criminal and aggressive, law enforcement officers are likely to view them as threatening. This factor justifies why there is a disproportionate application of deadly force against a member of these communities. As such, law enforcement officers’ decisions to take aggressive actions against the black community may be often influenced by racial stereotypes.
The media has also played a critical role in portraying males in black communities in a bad light, which heavily impacts how they are regarded by society. This type of characterization can be so negative that criminal suspects in most films or plays portray African American males as criminals. Additionally, Eberhardt et al. (2006) add that such characterizations also assume that the more Afrocentric an African American’s male facial features appear, the higher their likelihood of engaging in deviant behaviors. Based on this understanding, we can assume that the negative depictions of male African Americans by the media could be activating pre-existing stereotypes towards black communities. For instance, Eberhardt et al. (2006) explain that media consumption tends to be an active process where pre-existing viewers’ attitudes or beliefs make immense contributions to how certain images are interpreted or remembered. The fact that there have been increased incidences of police brutality and racial against black communities could also be related to stereotypes created by the media against African American males.
Possible Solutions to Police Brutality and Racial bias against Black Communities
Incidence of police brutality and racial bias against the black community and other minority groups often involve complex, multifaceted social issues. Despite these challenges, several strategies can be applied to decrease the existing divide between police officers and members of the black community and other minority groups. Historically, law enforcement officers and members from black communities and other minority groups haven’t been collaborative. To address this challenge, walker (2012) suggests that police departments should be more intention to establish strong partnerships with local communities that they have been given the responsibility to serve. Such an approach offers a good opportunity to enhance two-way communication and interaction between law enforcement officers and black community members, with community policing gradually becoming normalized within the United States, the probability of more racial minorities and women joining the police occupation promoting diversity in the process. With more diversified police departments, Walker argues that it will minimize police brutality and racial bias against minority communities, particularly the black community.
Given that most police officer brutality and racial bias could be because of their exposure to normative influences in society, racial bias should be addressed in the larger population. Some studies have suggested that children tend to be more amenable to many existing reduction strategies against racial bias than adults. For example, Kang and Apfelbaum (2012) explain that children below ten years are more repetitive to instructions regarding stereotypes and biases, while older children tend to be influenced by personal experiences. Based on this understanding, racial bias reduction initiatives should be integrated into elementary school education because it is more constructive than waiting when adults have already made their career choices and joined the workforce. As such, police brutality and racial bias against black communities and other people of color can be eliminated by making young children aware of these negative vices early before they have even chosen to pursue policing as a career or profession.
Another recommendation that can be used to address this problem would be to have police departments reflect or mirror a specific racial makeup area. Doubek (2020) explains that President Obama’s Task Force regarding the 21st Century Policing made a few recommendations. One of them is that law enforcement should give a community a demographic reflection because it can help establish trust with communities. However, Doubek (2020) also notes that although this measure helps eliminate some of the issues associated with police brutality and racial bias against black communities and people of color, law enforcement officers will often tend to have similar implicit biases. In other words, it would not be enough to have black police officers within a black neighborhood and expect that these issues are resolved automatically when they are not familiar with the area. As such, while law enforcement officers should give a demographic reflection of a community because it can help establish trust with communities, it would be much better to be familiar with the neighborhood or their community.
Walker (2011) suggests that interracial interaction and engagement can help eliminate some existing intergroup biases. For example, establishing cross-racial communication can provide more knowledge, allowing people within the community to question any existing assumptions or stereotypes like black makes are criminals. Antomo et al. (2004) add to this point by explaining that when white people become exposed to black people’s opinions through small group discussions, they tend to develop more novel and complex contributions to a given debate. Based on this understanding, engaging white people in various discussions regarding different racial issues can help them reflect more introspectively regarding interracial relations and police brutality. Additionally, Cross-racial contact also has the potential to support positive intergroup relations. For instance, Gaither and Sommers (2013) explain that white college students with roommates from different races will tend to create friendships from diverse bases and experience very little interracial anxiety. Moreover, they are also likely to value and embrace diversity after just a few months. As such, these white college students can abandon any stereotypical beliefs that might be holding against black communities. A similar approach can be applied in law enforcement by encouraging police departments to encourage inter-racial relationships by ensuring that each department’s officers are from diverse races. Adopting these measures would help eliminate any existing racial stereotypes. Additionally, through various law enforcement practices like community policing, there is more interaction between police officers and community members from diverse racial backgrounds, which helps establish cross-racial communication that can provide more knowledge, allowing people within the community to question any existing assumptions stereotypes.
According to contact theory, the contact experiences between groups of equal status and sharing a common goal leads to more positive interactions (Zuma, 2014). Based on this understanding, frequent and high quality or positive interactions between civilians and police officers based on a mutual goal of promoting public safety should be encouraged. This approach can be realized through community policing, where a systemic approach towards policing to enhance a general sense of community helps improve the overall quality of life. This approach is a useful tool supporting healthier contacts and experiences between civilians and police officers by aligning their interests. Given that community policing is a partnership between the community and police officers, which requires these officers to be more embedded in their communities, it can bridge the gap between the community and law enforcement officers. In other words, it helps counteract the rivalry of them versus us dynamics. In this case, police officers entering into partnerships with community members to eliminate crime within a given society help minimize any pre-existing stereotypes, thus building a strong relationship foundation.
Another key consideration that has to be made to eliminate police brutality and racial bias against black communities is adopting mandatory and continual diversity training for all police officers because it would help eliminate implicit and explicit biases. According to Walker (2011), diversity training tends to have an immediate, stable, and positive impact on cognitive learning outcomes. Walker (2011) also adds that diversity training tends to have a greater positive effect, especially when complemented with other diversity initiatives targeted at skill development such as conflict resolution and the self-awareness of stereotyping.
Future Research
From the preceding, law enforcement officers are part of an institutionalized culture, and they act and abide accordingly based on what is administratively within their policing culture or employment institutions. In other words, touch police brutality and excessive force exist because senior officials or officers must tolerate such habits within law enforcement. Maybe the reasons why racial bias and police brutality continues is linked to law enforcement officers abiding by the unspoken rules rewarding or punishing employees based on their acceptance or rejection of popular policing culture. In this area, more research is required to determine how policing’s administrative culture and structure contribute to increasing police brutality and racial bias against black communities and other minority groups.
The impact of police brutality and racial bias towards black communities and other minorities can be a form of bullying. Moreover, research also suggests that disenfranchisement and discrimination are linked to physical and mental harm to the victims. Moreover, there have also been suggestions there is a strong linkage between the poor health experienced by a majority of black male and their living in fear that they might be treated unfairly or killed by law enforcement officers. This area requires more study because identifying the potential outcome of continuing police brutality against black communities would explain the possibility of overcoming these challenges.
Conclusion
In conclusion, police brutality against African Americans and other minority communities has been increasing in recent history. The brutal murder of George Floyd by former Minneapolis police officers has reinvigorated a common public debate regarding police brutality and racism against black communities and other minority groups. The previous acts of police brutality against black communities and the judicial system’s inability to provide fair trials and prosecutions to such incidents have contributed to the current state of affairs. African American males are often viewed as criminals, and it is a notion that is further enhanced in the media, the general public, and through disparate sentencing outcomes. Moreover, African American males with Afrocentric features like darker skins, full lips, and broad noses, among others, are likely to receive longer sentences in the American judicial system compared to those having less Afrocentric features or are with straighter hair and lighter skin. The negative depictions of male African Americans by the media could be activating pre-existing stereotypes towards black communities. It will minimize police brutality and racial bias against minority communities with more diversified police departments, particularly the black community. Police brutality and racial bias against black communities and other people of color can be eliminated by making young children aware of these negative vices early before they have even chosen to pursue policing as a career or profession. While law enforcement officers should give a demographic reflection of a community because it can help establish trust with communities, it would be much better to be familiar with the neighborhood or their community by encouraging police departments to encourage inter-racial relationships by ensuring that each department’s officers are from diverse races. Adopting these measures would help eliminate any existing racial stereotypes. More research is required to determine how policing’s administrative culture and structure contribute to increasing police brutality and racial bias against black communities and other minority groups

References
Antomo, A. L., Chang, M. L, Hakuta, K., Kenny, D. A., Levin, S., & Milem, J. F. (2004). Effects of racial diversity on complex thinking in college students. Psychological Science, 15, 507-510. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00710.x
Doubek, J. (2020, June 22). Police researcher: Officers have similar biases regardless of race. Retrieved from https://www.delawarepublic.org/post/police-researcher-officers-have-similar-biases-regardless-race
Eberhardt, J. L., Davies, P. G., Purdie-Vaughns, V. J., & Johnson, S. I. (2006). Looking deathworthy: perceived stereotypically of Black defendants predicts capital-sentencing outcomes. Psychological Science, 17(5), 383–386.
Gaither, S. E., & Sommers, S. R. (2013). Living with an other-race roommate shapes Whites’ behavior in subsequent diverse settings. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 272-276. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.10.020
Kang, S. K., & Apfelbaum, E. (2012, April 12). Research-based advice on teaching children not to be racist. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic .com/health/archive/2012/04/research-based-advice-on-teaching- children-not-to-be-racist/255736/
Plant, E. A., & Peruche, B. M. (2005). The consequences or race for police officers’ responses to criminal suspects. Psychological Science, 16(3), 180–183
Walker, A. (2011). Racial profiling separates and unequal keeping the minorities in the line-the role of law enforcement in America. St. Thomas Law Review, 23, 576–619.
Zuma, B. (2014). Contact theory and the concept of prejudice: Metaphysical and moral explorations and an epistemological question. Theory & Psychology, 24(1), 40-57. doi:10.1177/0959354313517023

Substance abuse and mental health

Parameters

Be sure to support your post with at least one peer-reviewed article
Use APA-formatted in-text citations and references
Refer to these literature search tips
Substance abuse and mental health

Students Name
Institutional Affiliation

Mental health and drug abuse intersect because some illegal drugs can cause a person to experience the symptoms of mental health problems. On the other hand, mental health issues can lead one to drug use and alcohol. People with mental health often turn to drugs for self-medication. Also, nearly exposure to stress and trauma lead to mental disorders that cause the users to turn to substance use. Studies have found that many addicts are also diagnosed with other mental disorders (Watkins,2011). Both long-term and short-term drug abuse causes mental health issues such as hallucinations, anxiety, and depression among other issues.
People who are addicted to drugs roughly suffer from anxiety and mood disorders. Dealing with drug abuse is even more difficult when you have mental disorder problems. Both mental health issues and drug disorders affect an individual’s performance. According to (Watkins,2011) concurring substance abuse and mental health issues are common than many people think. The two issues correlate and affect each other. Research done by The Journal of the American Medical Association found that roughly 5o percent of individuals with mental disorders abuse drugs. At least 37 percent of the drug users abused alcohol.
People with mental illness and drug use problems experience behavioral changes, physical changes, and social changes. Behavioral changes include lack of motivation, sudden mood swings, paranoia, and unexplained change in personality (Watkins,2011). The physical changes include bloodshot eyes, sudden weight loss. Unusual smells in the breath and tremors. The social changes include legal problems related to substance abuse, unexplained need for money or financial problems, and deterioration of relationships. However, the relationship between substance abuse and mental health disorder does not completely define causality. For example, long term use of marijuana causes prolonged psychotic reactions while alcohol deepens the symptoms.
References
Watkins, K. (2011). A national survey of care for persons with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. Psychiatric Services, 52(8), 1062-1068.

World Bank and International Monetary Fund

World Bank/IMF Paper

The Legacy of the World Bank and the IMF in Africa: Help or Hindrance?
As we now know, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund were created to help assure global stability in finance and trade, and to provide long-term funding for specific development activities. The effectiveness of these institutions in Africa has been mixed, with many critics arguing that the World Bank and IMF legacy in Africa has been largely harmful. After reading a chapter from Robert Gilpin’s The Political Economy of International Relations, provide arguments that take into account each theoretical school of thought for one of your country case studies.
• What programs were implemented?
• How were they implemented?
• Were they successful?
• Why or why not?
Baseline readings:
1. Robert Gilpin, Chapter 7, Theories of Economic Development and Overview of Theories of IPE
2. Chazan, et.al., Chapter 10, and Moss, Chapter 7
To see the specific grading criteria for this assignment, please view the rubric and address the following items:
• In-text citations are sufficient (Hudson, 2016)
• A bibliography is needed because of the additional research.
• Please submit your write-up as a word document. .
• The paper should be about 2500-3000 words, double-spaced in a 12-11 point font.
• Provide a cover page, to include a title, your name, my name, the course name, and a date.


World Bank and International Monetary Fund
Date:
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World Bank and International Monetary Fund
The world bank and international monetary fund services were first developed to help developing countries reduce poverty and promote economic system stability. Also, the international monetary fund service monitors the countries’ currencies provide loans to countries with financial difficulties, and provide financial help to all members. On the other hand, the world bank group helps private sectors grow and strengthen financially, provides policy advice, and provides financial advice to all its members (Toussaint, 2021).
The world bank is considered the most considerable financial support for developing countries formed from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA). providing financial assistance and providing technical services to the government. Through institutions like the ICSID, MIGA, and IFC, the world bank offers political risk insurance and settles any financial dispute between the countries. The IMF and world bank group have received several criticisms in Africa especially concerning human rights, democratic governance, and the environment. The paper is an argument about the programs implemented by the world bank, and the international monetary fund, success, and failures of the programs, in Kenya.
What programs were implemented?
Following the second world war, the international monetary fund and the world bank was created to develop the global economic system, influencing the united states geopolitical factors. However, the two financial institutions built the economy after the disruption of the war and promoted Western capitalism. On the other hand, the two financial institutions mitigate global inequality in Kenya and other African countries, mostly due to a rise in population, increased poverty levels, and population growth (Dafe, 2019). Over the years, the world bank and the international monetary fund services have been criticized by African countries. For example, Kenya and other countries have changed the economic adjustment programs for promoting third-world countries’ dependency on Western countries. According to research carried out, the world bank and the international monetary fund have increased poverty. Under-development in Kenya, increasing reliance on western countries such as the united states.
The international monetary funds and the world bank programs have been of significant impact on Kenya’s economy. For example, the structural adjustment programs, which the Bretton mostly supports since the late nineteenth century. The structural adjustment program was primarily designed to achieve short-term economic stability and long-term economic change in the country (Toussaint, 2021). Additionally, the program was designed to cater to emergencies and any immediate crisis in the country. On the other hand, the program focuses on enhancing the output by balancing and catering for private sectors, the market’s role, and prices. The bank restructuring program, however, has received several criticisms, especially on poverty.
How were they implemented?
The IMF and the WB structural program’s primary goal has been designed to assist members in dealing with the impacts and consequences of the damaged environment, mainly due to political and social implications. For example, poor communities are more involved in activities that can damage the environment. The governance of the world bank and the international monetary fund service has been vital in ensuring the program is well implemented in Kenya (Toussaint, 2021). The IMF and the world bank have played a significant role in managing Kenya’s economy by enhancing financial transparency, adaptability, flexibility, speed, and cheerleading. For example, as cheerleaders, the world bank and the international monetary fund programs have created loans to many African countries such as Kenya. The loans assist in domestic and political stability, especially to countries after political wars. On the other hand, the loans assist investors and politicians in managing the costs or integration. The loans, however, are attached to various policies that Kenya must comply with.
Kenya has an opportunity to ask the international monetary fund to bail them out in case of unpaid debt. The world bank and global monetary fund use the flexible credit line (FCL), which assists in disbursing loans faster to member countries through austerity measures, raising interest. The IMF uses a program known as the rapid credit facility for Kenya as a low-income country, with low conditions than the austerity program measures. Kenya has asked for help from the international monetary fund services to cope with the pandemic’s economic impacts through the fast credit facility program. The staff requested an SDR 52.8millios to deal with the effects and causes of COVID-19. The financial assistance would help the country promote development regardless of the ongoing pandemic (Mawejje, and Odhiambo, 2020). According to a policy discussion, the central bank should track inflation in the country and encourage data decision policies. The structural adjustment policy impacts the countries’ child health, where there is a close association between children’s health outcomes and the structural adjustment program. The structural adjustment program provides loans for children malnutrition in Kenya for about two million children in Kenya and other African countries. On the other hand, the program, however, has been reported to decrease parents’ protective responsibility on their children, especially on diet and education.
On the other hand, the structural program significantly impacts childhood mortality in Kenya through public sector management, stabilization policies, and private sector development. The plans based on the child and maternal health focus on direct and indirect effects on the health system and other related to the health system’s social determinants (Toussaint, 2021). For instance, one of the natural programs on the health system includes applying for structural programs on the government health expenditure, which changes the quality and quality of services offered to mothers and children. For example, reduced government funding and spending may impact health services’ quality, especially HIV/AIDS patients. On the other hand, the program has affected the health personnel available to offer health services to children and women.
On the other hand, regulation of funds has forced the government to cut citizens’ wages and increase the amount of tax, hence affecting the overall include of a country. On the other hand, in efforts to offer quality and increase the availability and accessibility of health centres, the IMF and the world bank tend to enhance the development of health care services by building more systems wherein the process the quality of services, reduces, leading to under-employment, low-quality services, and insufficient medicines. Apart from direct effects on health systems, the world bank and the international monetary funds have affected the country’s services by raising food prices to reduce obesity, promote water and sanitation, enhance debt servicing, and currency devaluation (Mawejje, and Odhiambo, 2020).
The world bank and IMF assess the countries financial stability by making the country. Resilient when it comes to financial matters. Additionally, the international monetary fund’s work on identifying opportunities, strengths, and vulnerabilities of Kenya for policy development in response to the gaps identified. The international monetary fund and the world bank work on setting a stage for 2030 development through the global monitoring report (GMR), which asses the country’s financial progress. Also, Kenya receives support on its tax system, especially in making the strategy stronger for its development. The monetary and world bank fills deficit gaps, especially if Kenya has a balance payment deficit. The international monetary fund’s assist in filling the void, especially if Kenya has unpaid debts with other countries, and assist in balancing the payments (Toussaint, 2021). The leading causes of a balance deficit gap include unilateral transfer, where the country sends foreign aid to another country without getting anything in return. The policies focus on privatization, and marketization by reducing subsidies, especially the privatization of education in case the public budget and investment reduce. The programs are designed for health, agriculture, trade liberalization, education, and bank structural adjustment policies, such as the central bank.
How were they implemented?
The international monetary fund and the world bank collaborate in the implementation of the programs through several designed terms since 1989. A high level of coordination is developed during a meeting conducted with the world’s boards of governors (Mawejje, and Odhiambo, 2020). Bank and the international monetary fund, where both the governors decide how to address financial and economic issues. In efforts to enhance development in Kenya and other low-income countries (Tanzi, 2021). On the other hand, the managing director of the international monetary fund and the world bank write various joint articles based on the countries visited and their regions. The two cooperate in collaborative initiatives, especially in maintaining high-level coordination, especially on addressing economic issues. The implementation process follows several standards and codes in its operation. For example, enhancing data dissemination and consistency in the dissemination of macroeconomic data across various countries. The world bank and international monetary fund also strengthen banking supervision, insurance supervision, policy transparency, and auditing (Toussaint, 2021). Other standards include corporate governance, security market regulation, and creditors rights, and insolvency regime.
Kenya being one of the developing countries, the country is not fully ready to participate in the global economy. The world bank and the international monetary fund come in and offer assistance to reduce poverty through the provision of self-help. Additionally, the world bank and the IMF use the poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP, which assists in reducing poverty by offering technical assistance and promoting institutional capacity (Mawejje, and Odhiambo, 2020). According to the international monetary fund, economic growth and stability is the only way to increase the income, and living standards of people in Kenya, hence reducing poverty. The world bank and the IMF promote the effectiveness of globalization.
Were they successful?
The international monetary and world bank programs have been very impactful in Kenya, especially in various economic processes. According to a report produced late 2020, the country sought a loan of more than two point three billion dollars under the lender extended fund facility, according to the countries national treasury cabinet secretary known as Ukur Yatani. ON the other hand, the loan was for support and reviving the country’s economy due to COVID-19 (Jayamohan, 2021). Funding the country has been an issue, where the government under the administration of President Uhuru Kenyatta developed a policy known as the big four agenda. The big four schedules were designed to boost the countries’ farming, manufacturing, housing, and health care (Tanzi, 2021). The country has held several goals and objectives, especially on economic development. The government is working with the word ban on developing the policies, especially on loans, which will depend on the country’s ability to manage the fiscal framework. On the other hand, the government has been urged by the international monetary funds to participate in the debt service suspension initiative, which would help the country fight impacts related to the COVID-19 pandemic (Jayamohan, 2021). On the other hand, the international monetary fund has promoted the countries’ health care systems, significantly increasing health care equality and catering for children and women, especially children nutrition.
On the other hand, the IMF and the world bank adjustment programs have not reduced poverty in Kenya. The economic constructions have been reported to negatively affect the poor, mostly due to several fiscal adjustments, such as the international monetary, and world bank is known to increase taxes, such as sale taxes. As most people get their income from formal sectors, the fiscal adjustment policies tend to affect them, especially when it comes to taxation, compared to people receiving most of their income from informal sectors, however, the low benefit less from a structural adjustment of the programs, especially by the program’s expansion, than contraction (Tanzi, 2021).
Why or why not?
The international monetary funds and the world bank have not been of significant help in Kenya, especially in reducing poverty (Mawejje, and Odhiambo, 2020). One reason is that Kenya’s as a member of IMF, and the world bank, is under-represented during decisions making compared to developed or western countries. The voting power is considered an imbalance despite the reformations developed in 2016. Additionally, Kenya’s voting powers have been undermined in favour of countries such as Japan, European countries, and the united states, which has the veto power in decision making. The under-representation has been a major contributing factor to the failures of the programs. On the other hand, the biased and inconsistent decision-making process and dictatorship have influenced the IMF and the word bank, mainly concentrating with private sectors in efforts to maximize its finances for development.
On the other hand, the international monetary funds cannot learn and correct their past mistakes, especially in developing countries. The world bank has been reported not to implement the independent evaluation group (IEG) and the IMF separate evaluation office (IEO). The banks, however, lack traction. The IMF and the world bank lack the impunity for harm caused, especially those related to social and environmental (Toussaint, 2021). The banks also fail to conduct financial screening and monitoring, which assist in policy development and realize the country’s strengths and vulnerabilities. Also, lack of public disclosure has been reported to affect the investments, especially the less privileged community. The policies, programs, and projects that the bank designs tend to undermine human rights, contrary to the world bank being known to be a human rights-free zone. The policies and programs restrict the macroeconomic environment for human rights, such as increasing regression taxes on the country, and capital control, which has affected low-income earners.
Aggressive privatization and development of constraints fiscal policies tend to affect the country, especially the poor, the LGBTQ communities, the disabled, ethnic and religious minorities, the elderly, and children (Tanzi, 2021). Also, the policies have caused significant effects on the country due to development projects, such as mass eviction and displacement of people by force (Toussaint, 2021). The expulsions and other destructive projects are funded by the world-bank, which disrupts economic activities, such as transport systems and agriculture. The destructions lead to more problems, such as high poverty, causes issues, such as food security issues, promote child labour, and other issues, such as early marriages and the spread of HIV/AIDS. The environment created can, however, promote sexual violence, family conflict, and criminality. The country and the bank lack enough evidence for work and projects done in the country, especially on projects meant to eradicate poverty, promote stability, and increase economic growth.
On the other hand, most of the projects carried out in the country provide a higher fiscal deficit. The rate at which poverty is eradicated in the country is slow, and while the number of people living in poverty is increasing. The issue mainly originates from how the world bank measures poverty levels and the bank’s failure to assess gender and inequality in their programs and policies (Jayamohan, 2021). The world bank and the international monetary fund have been reported to cause environmental damage and tamper with its climate. For example, the world bank and the global monetary fund have been reported to invest in fossil fuel, which has led to climate change due to carbon emissions.

References
Dafe, F. (2019). The politics of finance: How capital sways African central banks. The journal of development studies, 55(2), 311-327.
Jayamohan, M. K. (2021). How can Africa cope with the COVID-19 crisis? A note on IMF lending conditionality and alternative policy ideas. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies.
Mawejje, J., & Odhiambo, N. M. (2020). The Dynamics of Fiscal Deficits in Kenya: A Review of Reforms, Trends, and Determinants. African Journal of Business & Economic Research, 15(2).
Tanzi, V. (2021). Some Reflections on Transition: Its Roots, Complexity of the Process, and Role of the IMF and Other Organizations. The Palgrave Handbook of Comparative Economics, 369.
Toussaint, E. (2021). Domination of the United States on the World Bank–CADTM.
Toussaint, E. (2021). The World Bank, the IMF and the respect of human rights–CADTM.